Morphology

prefix-root-suffix

  • Root: original meaning
  • Prefix: intensive, direction or size
  • Suffix: property, meaning (sometimes)
  • Phonological change:
    • letter: vowel + consonant
    • vowel: a,e,i,o,u
    • semivowel: y,w
    • function: hyphen (i,u is the most common use) and no meaning
    • consonant: pronunciation is similar, and they can be replaced
      • voiced: suffix is often for verb (d,t,s)(e.g. scribe)
      • voiceless: suffix is often for noun or adjective (e.g. script)

The first three are the most important. Pronunciation change in English does not change its meaning, just extend in meaning, such as vinc and vict, they both mean winning, conquer.

80% of English vocabulary comes from foreign languages, and most of them are Latin.

English has a history of 2,300 years. In the course of historical development, its meaning will be gradually extended.

Word Matrix

English thinking:

  • Synecdoche: concrete things are often used to extend or represent the whole thing
    • bar(barrier) to represent the
  • Doubly consonant: British English often uses doubly consonant, American English often uses single consonant
    • traveller, traveler

Root

  • act: to do (e.g. action)
    • From Latin actus, agere
  • alt: tall
  • anim: life
  • astr: star
  • bar: bar, obstacle (e.g. embarrass, barrack)
    • From Latin barra
  • bal: the same as bar (e.g. balance, balk, baluster)
  • ban: the same as bar (e.g. abandon, banner, banquet, bank)
    • Italian banchi, the root of the Italian word for banks
  • carn: flesh (e.g. carnage)
  • cerebr: brain (e.g. cerebral)
  • cess: movement, migration (e.g. process)
  • chlor: chlor (e.g. chloroform)
  • circum: circle (e.g. circumscribe)
  • clude: to shut, close (e.g. include)
    • From Latin cludere, the more literal sense of “close, shut up, prevent access to”
  • col: column (e.g. coliform, col + i + form)
  • cribr: sieve, tube with holes (e.g. cribriform)
  • cruc: cross (e.g. cruciform)
  • cunei: cunei (e.g. cuneiform)
  • cuss: strike, hit, shake (e.g. percuss)
  • deme: people (e.g. pandemic)
    • From Greek demos
  • dent: a hollow area in the surface of something (e.g. dental)
    • From Latin dint
  • digm: to show (e.g. paramdigm)
    • Cognate with Latin dicere “to show;”
    • from PIE root *deik- “to show,” also “pronounce solemnly”
  • fall: downward movement (e.g. waterfall)
  • fame: fame, reputation
  • fect: doing (e.g. perfect)
  • fer: to carry, to bear (e.g. conference)
    • From Latin ferre
  • fine: end, limit, acme (e.g. define)
  • flu: the affects between objects (e.g. influence, flush)
    • From Latin fluere
  • flux: the same as flu (e.g. )
  • form: shape, look, etc. (e.g. transform, formula)
    • It comes from Latin formare
  • glossa language, tongue
    • From Greek glōtta
  • glotta: the same as glossa (e.g. polyglot)
  • half: half (e.g. halfway)
  • heal: heal (e.g. healthy)
  • hemo: blood (e.g. hemostat)
  • high: high (e.g. highlight)
  • hu: clay (e.g. human)
  • hydr: hydrogen, water (e.g. hydrate)
  • ill: bad, from evil (e.g. illness)
  • image: copy, statue, picture (e.g. imagination)
    • From Latin imago
  • lat: take (e.g. relate, re + lat + ate)
  • land: land (e.g. motherland, fatherland, landmark, mainland)
  • late: late
  • lic: to be allowed, be lawful (e.g. license)
    • Possibly source also of Lettish likstu “I come to terms”
  • log: language, symbol
  • logos: speech (e.g. apology)
    • From Greek
  • low: low
  • manu: hand (e.g. manufactor, manuscript)
  • mark: mark
  • mel: honey (e.g. mellifluous)
    • From Latin mel, related to Greek meli
  • mit: send (e.g. submit, permit)
  • morph: form, shape (e.g. morphology)
    • From Greek morphe
  • neo: new (e.g. neonatal)
  • news: message (e.g. newspaper, newsstand)
    • Message from North, East, West and South
  • non: no (e.g. nonperformance)
  • graph: write, draw, measure (e.g. photograph)
    • From Greek
  • gress: walk (e.g. progress)
  • od: a way or manner (e.g. method, period, odograph)
    • Method from Latin methodus “way of teaching or going”, meta- + hodos, meth originally pursuit, a following after
  • ori: rise (e.g. oriented )
    • From Latin, the position that sun rising from.
  • out: out (e.g. outperform)
  • phot: light (e.g. photo, photostat)
  • play: play (e.g. playbook)
  • please: please, aggreeable (e.g. unpleasant)
  • prehend: grap, grasp, arrest (e.g. comprehension)
    • From Latin, prehendere
  • press: press (e.g. pressman)
    • From Latin pressare
  • put: think
  • pol: citadel, fort, city (e.g. politic, polite, police)
    • From Greek polis
  • poor: poor
  • pos: powerful; lord; (e.g. possess)
  • rect: rect, right angle, a straight line (e.g. correct, direct)
  • rive: shore, bank, break
  • rupt: to break apart (e.g. corrupt)
  • sci: to know (e.g. science)
    • From Latin scire/scientis
  • scop: mirror (e.g. fluoroscopy)
  • scribe: to write or something written (e.g. subscribe)
  • scribble: careless writing, drawing
  • script: the same as scribe
  • sect: seprate
  • short: short
  • smog: smog
  • spek: look at, to observe (e.g. respect)
    • From Latin specere
  • spir: breath (e.g. spirit, conspire, inspire, expire)
  • spond: to pledge (e.g. respond)
    • From Latin spondere
  • spons: the same as spond
  • spong: spong (e.g. spongiform)
  • sid: to sit, to settle (e.g. consider, preside, reside)
    • From Latin sidere, opposite with st
    • The sid (sideris) means heavenly body, star, constellation
  • sit: the same as sid (e.g. site, situate)
  • sed: the same as sid (e.g. supersede, sediment, sedate, sedentary)
  • sess: the same as sid (e.g. possess, obsess, assess, session, sessile)
  • st: to stand, make or be firm (e.g. state, stand, still, stage, stay, rest, store, test, staff, stable, establish, institute, constitute, substitute, obstacle, obstinate, stall, stiff, install, prostitute, destiny, destination, stalemate, stalwart, oust, stiff, stub, stem, stamp)
  • sist: the same as st (e.g. assist, exist, insist, persist)
  • star: star
  • stat: the same as st (e.g. state st + ate, upstate, overstate)
  • stem: the same as st (e.g. system)
  • stin: the same as st
  • stil: the same as st (e.g. still)
    • Meaning motionless, stable, fixed, stationary
    • From Proto-Germanic *stilli- (source also of Old Frisian, Middle Low German, Middle Dutch stille, Dutch stil, Old High German stilli, German still)
  • struct: build (e.g. construct)
    • From Latin, structura, from struere, the way an organization, system, market etc is organized or put together.
  • suit: to follow (e.g. suitcase)
    • From Latin sequi
  • sume: use up (e.g. consume)
  • sui: one’s own (e.g. suicide)
    • From Latin sui “of oneself” (genitive of se “self”)
  • swim: swim
  • syn: to place together, organize, form in order (e.g. system)
    • From stem of synistanai
  • tire: become weary, exhausted (e.g. overtire)
  • tom: divide (e.g. atom, prostatectomy)
  • top: top
  • techn: art, skill (e.g. technology, techn + o + logy)
    • From Latin technicus, also from Greek tekhnikos
  • under: under (e.g. underline)
  • vi: road (e.g. via, obviate, obvious, previous, trivia)
  • via: the same as vi
  • vict win (e.g. victim)
    • The ancient Roman mythological character Victoria, goddess of victory.
  • vinc: overcome, conquer (e.g. convince)
    • It comes from Latin word vincere.
    • After Caesar put down the rebellion, he issued a three-V instrument, which is “Veni, Vedi, Vici”, and it means “I came, I saw, I conquered”.
  • vis: see (e.g. visit)
  • voc: voice (e.g. vocal, vocational)
  • voy: way, journey (e.g. voyage)
    • From French
  • watch: keep watch, be awake (e.g. watchdog)
  • way: way
  • wave: wave (e.g. waveform )

Prefix

  • a: off, of, away from (e.g. away, apart, ascribe, atom)
    • From Latin
  • ab: away, from, from off, down (e.g. abuse)
  • ac: cusp (e.g. acupressure)
  • ad: to
  • aero: air (e.g. aerostat)
  • as: the same as ad (e.g. assist)
  • agri: relating to farming (e.g. agriculture, agribusiness)
  • agro: the same as agri (e.g. agrobiology, agro-industry)
  • al: all (e.g. alway)
  • apo: off, away from (e.g. apology, apostate)
    • From Greek
  • bi: two (e.g. binary)
  • bi(o): relating to or using living things (e.g. biomedical)
  • circum: around, round about, all around, on all sides (e.g. circumstance)
    • From Latin adverb and preposition circum “around, round about,” literally “in a circle,” probably accusative form of circus “ring” (see circus).
  • co: the same as com (e.g. costar, cognate, cooperate, coexist, coeducation)
  • col: the same as com (e.g. colleague)
  • com: with, together, together with, in combination; sometimes merely intensive; (e.g. compress)
    • From Latin com, cum
  • con: the same as com (e.g. confirm, convergence, constant)
    • It is the form of com- used in Latin before consonants except -b-, -p-, -l-, -m-, or -r-.
  • cor: same as con (e.g. corrupt, correct)
    • The form used for com- before the letter r
  • cryo: of or involving very low temperatures (e.g. cryostat)
  • contra: against or opposite (e.g. contraband)
  • counter: against, in opposition; in return; corresponding, (e.g. counteract, counterfeit)
    • from Anglo-French countre-, French contre-, from Latin contra “opposite, contrary to, against, in return,” also used as a prefix (see contra (prep., adv.)
  • de: opposite, remove, reduce (e.g. deform, deviate, describe)
    • used to add the meaning “opposite”, “remove”, or “reduce” to a noun or verb:
  • detrite: erosion (e.g. detrition)
  • di: two, double, twice, twofold; apart, asunder(e.g. direct, divergence)
    • From Greek, cognate with bi-, meaning “two, twice”
    • From Latin, dis-, meaning “apart, asunder”
  • dis: not or opposite
  • dys: bad, ill; hard, difficult; abnormal, imperfect (e.g. dysfunction)
    • From Greek dys-
  • e: same as ex (e.g. evict)
  • ecto: outside, external (e.g. ectoderm)
    • Word-forming element generally before vowels ect-
    • From Latinized form of Greek adverb ektos “outside, out of; free from; exempt”
  • electro: electrical, electricity (e.g. electrotechnics)
  • em: the form used for en- before b, m, or p (e.g. empower)
  • endo: inside, within, internal (e.g. endogenous)
    • Word-forming element from Greek endon “in, within”
  • epi: on, upon, above;in addition to; toward, among; (e.g. epistemic)
    • Before vowels reduced to ep-, before aspirated vowels eph-
  • es: to be (intensive) (e.g. essence, espresso)
    • Proto-Indo-European root meaning “to be.”
  • ex: out of, from, upwards, completely, deprive of, former (e.g. express)
    • From Latin ex “out of, from within; from which time, since; according to; in regard to”
    • From PIE *eghs “out” (source also of Gaulish ex-, Old Irish ess-, Old Church Slavonic izu, Russian iz).
    • In some cases also from Greek cognate ex, ek
    • Often reduced to e- before -b-, -d-, -g-, consonantal -i-, -l-, -m-, -n-, -v- (as in elude, emerge, evaporate, etc.).
  • geo: relating to the Earth or its surface (e.g. geostationary)
  • hetero: other, opposite, different (e.g. heterosexual)
  • hypo: less than usual, especially too little; the same as sub-, under (e.g. hypotherm, hypostatic)
  • im: not, opposite of; in,into (e.g. immobile, impersonal, implant, impress)
    • The form used for in- before b, m, or p
    • In some English words it alternates with em-
  • in: not, intensive, inside (e.g. invalid, insufficient, inform, inland)
  • infra: below, under (e.g. infrastructure)
  • inter: between or involving two or more different things (e.g. internet)
  • intro: into, especially into the inside (e.g. introduce)
  • immun: free, exempt (e.g. immunosuppression)
    • From Latin immunis “exempt from public service, untaxed; unburdened, not tributary,” literally “not paying a share,” from assimilated form of in- “not, opposite of” (see in-) + munis “performing services” (compare municipal), suffixed form of root *mei- “to change, go, move.” Specific modern medical sense of “exempt (from a disease)
  • ir: used instead of in- before the letter r
  • is: separate, apart (e.g. island)
  • macro: extremely large
  • mal: bad (e.g. malware)
  • main: main (e.g. main)
  • magn: big
  • meta: beyond or at a higher level; relating to a change of state or position; (e.g. metaphysical, metabolism, metastatic)
  • micro: extremely small (e.g. microphone)
  • mini: very small (e.g. minimum)
  • mis: miss (e.g. mistake, misinform)
  • mono: one, single
  • multi: multiple (e.g. multiform)
  • nano: nano (e.g. nanostructure, nanotechnology)
  • net: net (e.g. internet)
  • non: not, none = no one (e.g. nonformal)
  • ob: toward(intensive), against, before, near, across, down (e.g. obstruct, obsess)
  • omni: everything or everywhere, all (e.g. omnipresent, omnidirectional)
  • op: the same as ob (e.g. oppress)
    • assimilated form of ob- before -p-
  • ortho: straight, true, correct, regular (e.g. orthostatic)
    • before vowels, word-forming element, now mostly in scientific and technical compounds, from Greek orthos.
  • over: over (e.g. overfly)
  • pan: all, every, whole, all-inclusive (e.g. pandemic)
    • From Greek pan-, combining form of pas
  • para: alongside, beyond; altered; contrary; irregular, abnormal (e.g. paramedic, parastatal)
    • From Greek para-, before vowels, par-, word-forming element.
  • per: every, entire (e.g. perfect, perform, persist)
  • pir: pear (e.g. piriform)
  • plat: small place (e.g. platform)
  • poly: multiple, entire (e.g. polytechnic)
  • pre: before, ahead (e.g. preformed)
    • From Latin prae-, before, ahead
  • pro: forward (direction)
    • It comes from Prometheus, who can predict the future.
  • pur: the same as pro
    • A variant of Latin pro “before, for” (see pro-)
    • The earliest form of the prefix in English, and it is retained in some words, but in others it has been corrected to Latinate pro-.
  • pyro: something related to fire (e.g. pyrotechnics)
  • From Greek pyr (genitive pyros)
  • quad: related to quantity of four
  • quasi: as if, as it were (e.g. quasi-static)
  • re: repeat, back (e.g. response)
  • rheo: a flowing, stream, current (e.g. rheostat)
    • from Greek rheos, which is related to rhein “to flow”
  • semi: half
  • sens: understanding or feeling of something (e.g. sense)
  • sent: the same as sens (e.g. consent)
  • soci: partner (e.g. social, soci + al)
  • sol: uninjured, in good health, safe (e.g. solid)
    • From Latin salvificus “saving”
  • stereo: solid, firm; three-dimensional; stereophonic (e.g. stereotype)
    • From Greek stereos “solid”, before vowels stere-, word-forming element
  • sub: under (e.g. subway(Americanism, underway is british style), substructure)
  • sup: the same as sub (e.g. suppress, support)
    • Assimilated form of sub- before -p-
  • sur: over, above, beyond, in addition; the same as sub (e.g. surface)
    • From Anglo-French and Old French, from Old French sour-, sor-, sur-, from Latin super
    • Assimilated form of sub- before -r-.
  • sus: the same as sub (e.g. sustain)
    • Assimilated form of sub- before -s-.
  • super: above (e.g. superstructure)
  • therm: heat, hot, warm (e.g. hetertherm, thermostat)
  • trans: across, beyond, through, on the other side of, to go beyond (e.g. transparent, transcribe)
  • tri: three (e.g. trivia)
  • un: not, one (e.g. uninformed, uniform)
  • uni: one, single, un + i (e.g. uniform)
  • use: use (e.g. usage)
  • vore: devour (e.g. devore)
  • vaso: container, vessel (e.g. vasopressin, vasopressor)
    • Combining form of Latin vas (see vas)
  • zymo: make, brew (e.g. zymotechnics)
    • From Greek zymo-, branch of chemistry which deals with wine-making and brewing

Vowel + 2 Consonant patterns:

  • a??: intensive (e.g. attention, apprehend, afflux, assure, assiduous)
  • e??: out of, same as ex- (e.g. eccentric, effluent, efflux)
  • i??: not, intensive, same as ir- (e.g. irregular)
  • o??: opposite of, intensive, same as op- (e.g. oppress)

Variants:

  • com- = con- = col- = cor- = co-
  • di- = dis- = de- = is-
  • in- = im- = un-
  • sub- = sup- = sur- = sus-
  • en- = em- = in- (e.g. enrich, enlarge, encourage)
  • super- = over-
  • inter- = intel- = enter- (e.g. )

Suffix

  • a: noun (e.g formula)
  • al: noun or adjective
  • ade: noun (e.g. barriecade)
    • Denoting an action or product of an action, via French, Spanish, or Italian, ultimately from Latin -ata, fem.
  • ase: noun, used in naming enzymes, from ending of diastase (biochemistry). (e.g. transcriptase)
  • age: noun, the same as ic (e.g. formage)
    • Word-forming element in nouns of act, process, function, condition, from
    • From Old French and French -age, from Late Latin -aticum “belonging to, related to,” originally neuter adjectival suffix
  • an: noun or adjective
  • ance: noun (e.g. performance, appearance, balance)
    • The action, state, or quality of doing something or of being something
  • ant: noun (e.g. informant, assistant, redundant, significant)
    • Someone or something that does something
  • able: adjective
  • ability: noun (able + i + ty)
  • acle: noun (e.g. obstacle)
  • acy: noun; quality, state, or condition (e.g. obstinacy)
  • ar: noun same as -er
  • ary: adjective or noun; having to do with, characterized by, tending to, place for (e.g. arbitrary)
    • from Middle English -orie, from Old North French -ory, -orie (Old French -oir, -oire), from Latin -orius, -oria, -orium
  • at: noun or verb (e.g. formate)
  • ate: verb or adjective or noun
    • Verb, make something doing (e.g. regulate, control somthing or make it regular)
    • Adjective, full of or showing a particular quality (e.g. affectionate)
    • Noun, job, rank, or degree of a particular quality/type/duty…
  • ation: noun (ate + ion)
  • ative: noun (ate + ive)
  • cide: noun (e.g. suicide)
    • used to form words referring to substances that kill a particular thing
  • craft: noun, skill
  • crat: noun, governing (e.g. democrat)
  • cracy: noun, same as ocrat (e.g. e.g. democracy)
  • dom: noun, abstract suffix of state (e.g. freedom, random)
    • From Old English dom “statute, judgment” (see doom)
  • don: verb (e.g. abandon)
  • e: noun (e.g. )
  • ed: adjective
  • el: noun (e.g. barrel)
    • instrumental word-forming element, expressing “appliance, tool,” from Old English -ol, -ul, -el, representing PIE *-lo- (see -ule). In modern English usually -le except after -n-.
    • Suffix -al origins from here
  • en: verb, adjective or noun is rarely seen (e.g. barren)
  • ence: the same as ance (e.g. violence)
  • ent: (e.g. different, recipient)
    • Making adjectives from nouns or verbs, from French
  • er: noun, executor of an action
  • ery: noun or adjective, the same as -ary (e.g. stationery)
  • ess: noun, female (e.g. actress, waitress, tigress, directress)
  • ette: noun, a small thing of a particular type (e.g. barrette, snackette, statuette)
  • fic: adjective, making, creating (e.g. scientific)
    • From French -fique and directly from Latin -ficus “making, doing”
  • fy: verb, make, make into (e.g. rectify, verify, falsify, qualify, specify)
    • From French -fier
    • From Latin -ficare, combining form of facere “to make”
  • hood: noun (e.g. likelihood)
    • state or condition of being, from old English
  • ia: noun, in names of countries, diseases, and flowers (e.g. Asia)
    • From Latin and Greek -ia, noun ending, in Greek especially used in forming abstract nouns (typically of feminine gender);
  • ible: the same as able (e.g. invincible)
  • ibility: noun (ible + i + ty)
  • ic: adjective, having to do with, having the nature of, being, made of, caused by, similar to (e.g. iconic)
    • From French -ique and directly from Latin -icus or from cognate Greek -ikos
  • ics: noun, ic + s, the study of something (e.g. bioinformatics)
  • id: noun or verb, rarely adjective (e.g. liquid, fluid, solid, sol + id)
  • ile: the same as ible
  • ine: none (e.g. vaccine)
  • im: noun, meaning man (e.g. victim)
  • ing: adjective (e.g. fitting)
  • ion: noun (e.g. formation)
  • ish: noun or adjective, something of one place, quite
  • ism: noun, principle (something’s abstraction)
  • ist: noun, people, principle (e.g. formalist)
  • it: the same as id (e.g. unit)
  • itude: noun (something’s abstraction)
  • ity: noun, related to a state or quality, i + ty (e.g. performatity)
    • Added to adjectives to form nouns
  • ium: noun (e.g. scriptorium, technetium, medium)
  • ive: adjective (e.g. active)
  • ise: verb (Americanism)
  • ize: verb (British Style)
  • istic: ist + ic (e.g. formalistic)
  • itis: noun (e.g. periodontitis)
    • An illness or infection that affects a particular part of your body
  • latry: noun, worship of (e.g. technolatry, bardolatry)
    • From Greek -latreia “worship, service paid to the gods, hired labor,” related to latron (n.) “pay, hire,” latris “servant, worshipper,” from PIE *le- (1) “to get” (see larceny).
  • le: noun, verb, repeat (e.g. scribble)
  • less: adjective, negation (e.g. homeless, hopeless, careless, meaningless, useless, regardless)
  • logy: noun, study
  • ly: adverb
  • ment: noun, to show actions, the people who do them, or their results (e.g. government)
    • Used to form a noun from a verb
  • ness: noun (e.g. formlessness)
    • A quality or a condition (used to form nouns from adjectives)
  • nomy: subject
  • or: the same as -er (e.g. resistor)
  • ory: noun, the same as -ary (e.g. victory, directory, formulary)
  • ous: adjective, refer to a quality or condition (e.g. numerous)
  • phile: noun, someone who likes something (e.g. technophile)
  • phobe: noun, someone who dislikes or hates something (e.g. technophobe)
  • ship: noun, abstraction (e.g. friendship, directorship)
  • some: adjective
    • Word-forming element used in making adjectives from nouns or adjectives (and sometimes verbs)
    • Meaning “tending to; causing; to a considerable degree,” from Old English -sum
  • ster: noun, a person who is associated with something (e.g. baluster, gangster)
    • Old English -istre, from Proto-Germanic *-istrijon, feminine agent suffix used as the equivalent of masculine -ere (See -er)
  • tude: the same as -ude (e.g. attitude, aptitude, latitude)
  • ty: noun
  • ude noun, adjective (e.g. attitude, rectitude)
    • Making abstract nouns from adjectives and participles, is fixed to a base or to another suffix ending in -t or -te
    • From French -ude, from Latin -udo (stem -udin-). The equivalent of native -ness
  • ul: adjective, the same as al (e.g. formula, form + ul + a)
  • ur: noun, the same as -er (e.g. voyageur)
  • ure: noun or verb (e.g. structure)
    • Suffix forming abstract nouns of action, from Old French -ure, from Latin -ura, an ending of fem. nouns denoting employment or result.
  • us: noun (e.g. exodus, humerus, rectus)
  • ute: verb or noun (e.g. institute)
    • verb is same as -ate

Variants:

  • -al = -el = -il = -ul
  • -ar = -er = -ir = -or = -ur
  • -able = -ible = -ile = -ble
  • -ary = -ery = -ory
  • -ate = -ite = -ute
    • -ation = -ition = -ution
  • -um = -im = (-am = -em)
  • -ant = -ent = -and = -end (e.g. important, student)
    • noun or adjective; none means man in general
  • -ance = -ence = -ancy = -ency (e.g. balance, fluence)
    • noun; occasionally verb
  • -id = -it (e.g. liquid, fluid)
  • -ize = -ise
  • -ous (= -ious = -eous = -uous)

Composition

  • age: age, era, epoch (e.g. information-age)
  • anti: opposed to or against something (e.g. anti-virus)
  • approved: opproved (e.g. state-approved)
  • appointed: appointed (e.g. state-appointed)
  • based: based on something, base + ed (e.g. information-based, rule-based)
  • best: best (e.g. best-informed)
  • blood: blod (e.g. blood-pressure)
  • certified: certified (e.g. state-certified)
  • chartered: chartered (e.g. state-chartered)
  • co: company (e.g. co-operation, co-president)
  • cold: cold (e.g. cold-pressed)
  • cost: cost (e.g. cost-cutting, cost-sharing, low-cost)
  • counter: anti (e.g. counter-reformation)
  • concent: concent (e.g. informed-consent)
  • cross: cross (e.g. cross-platform)
  • dominated: dominated (e.g. state-dominated)
  • driven: driven (e.g. technology-driven)
  • ex: outward, before (e.g. ex-boyfriend, ex-president)
  • era: era, epoch (e.g. Victorian-era, Depression-era)
  • enforced: enforced (e.g. state-enforced)
  • enhancing: enhance + ing (e.g. performance-enhancing)
  • fed: feed (e.g. formula-fed)
  • fecal: fecal (e.g. fecal-coliform)
  • financed: financed (e.g. state-financed)
  • fine: fine (e.g. fine-structure)
  • first: first (e.g. keyboard-first)
  • fitting: fit + ing (e.g. form-fitting)
  • forming: form + ing (e.g. star-forming)
  • free: free (e.g. free-form)
  • gathering: gather (e.g. information-gathering)
  • hard: hard (e.g. hard-pressed)
  • health: health (e.g. health-reform)
  • high: high (e.g. high-performance, high-technology)
  • hot: hot (e.g. hot-pressed)
  • ill: ill (e.g. ill-informed)
  • imposed: imposed (e.g. state-imposed)
  • late: late (e.g. late-Victorian)
  • led: lead (e.g. state-led)
  • life: life (e.g. life-form)
  • licensed: licensed (e.g. state-licensed)
  • low: low (e.g. low-performing)
  • long: long (e.g. long-period, long-term, long-standing)
  • managed: managed (e.g. state-managed, stage-managed)
  • mandated: mandated (e.g. state-mandated)
  • neo: new (e.g. neo-Victorian)
  • newly: new (e.g. newly-formed)
  • non: none (e.g. non-structural)
  • oft: often (e.g. oft-stated)
  • operated: operated (e.g. state-operated)
  • oriented: orient + ed (e.g. performance-oriented, technology-oriented)
  • packed packed (e.g. pressure-packed)
  • paper: paper (e.g. construction-paper)
  • performing: perform + ing (e.g. best-performing)
  • post: after (e.g. post-conviction)
  • poor: poor (e.g. poor-performing)
  • processing: process + ing (e.g. information-processing)
  • record: record (e.g. state-record)
  • regulated: regulate + ed (e.g. state-regulated)
  • related: relate + ed (e.g. performance-related)
  • related: relate + ed (e.g. technology-related)
  • rich: rich (e.g. information-rich)
  • sanctioned: sanction + ed (e.g. state-sanctioned)
  • self: self (e.g. self-instruction)
  • setting: set + ing (e.g. standard-setting)
  • sharing: share + ing (e.g. information-sharing)
  • short: short (e.g. short-period)
  • social: social (e.g. social-structural)
  • state: state (e.g. state-specific)
  • stage: stage (e.g. stage-managed)
  • still: still (e.g. still-life, still-living, still-warm, still-young)
  • style: style (e.g. Victorian-style)
  • subsidized: subsidized (e.g. state-subsidized)
  • then: then (e.g. then-president)
  • treated: treated (e.g. pressure-treated)
  • total: total (e.g. total-coliform)
  • top: top (e.g. top-performing)
  • technology: techn + o + logy (e.g. information-technology)
  • well: well (e.g. well-informed, well-known)
  • welfare: welfare (e.g. welfare-reform)
  • wielding: wield + ing (e.g. hammer-wielding)
  • vice: vice (e.g. vice-president)