Beginning with an exploration of everyday base words and affixes, this post will show how to apply your knowledge of these patterns to the multisyllabic English words of Latin origin, and its potential to enhance vocabulary skills. You will discover why and how the roots of English have led to the belief, albeit unjustified, that the English spelling system is awkward and contradictory.

Pattern

prefix-root-suffix

  • Root: original meaning
  • Prefix: emphatic, direction or size
  • Suffix: property, meaning (sometimes)
  • Phonological change:
    • letter: vowel + consonant
    • vowel: a, e, i , o, u (e.g. rest/rust, shirt/short)
    • semivowel: y, w (e.g. yes/fly)
    • function: hyphen (i,u is the most common use) and no meaning
    • consonant: pronunciation is similar, and they can be replaced
      • voiced: suffix is often for verb (d,t,s)(e.g. scribe)
      • voiceless: suffix is often for noun or adjective (e.g. script)
    • sound laws in the Indo-European languages:
      • Grimm’s law
      • Verner’s law
      • Winter’s law
      • b = p = m = f = v (e.g. fin/pin/pen)
      • g = k = c = h (e.g. glue/clue, horn/corn)
      • m = n = l = r (e.g. sum/sol, moon/lun, palm = p + arm, bank = bar + k, desert = de + sand)
      • d = t = s = c = th (e.g. dent/teeth)
      • u = v = w
      • y = i (e.g. crisis = cry + sis, crime = cry + me)

The first three are the most important. Pronunciation change in English does not change its meaning, just extend in meaning, such as vinc and vict, they both mean winning, conquer.

80% of English vocabulary comes from foreign languages, and most of them are Latin, French, Germanic.

English Words Origin

  • Latin: university, library
  • French: beef (English call cow), pork (English call pig)
  • Germanic: machine, automatic
  • Greek: democracy, liberty
  • Japanese: tofu (Chinese, 豆腐), sensei (Chinese, 先生),senpai(Chinese, 先辈)
  • Chinese: katchup (Cantonese, 茄汁), kowtow (Cantonese, 叩头), lychee (荔枝), typhoon (台风), mandarin (满大人)

English has a history of 2,300 years. In the course of historical development, its meaning will be gradually extended.

Word Matrix

English thinking:

  • Synecdoche: concrete things are often used to extend or represent the whole thing
    • bar(barrier) to represent the
  • Doubly consonant: British English often uses doubly consonant, American English often uses single consonant
    • traveller, traveler

Alphabet Hieroglyphic

Proto-Canaanite (BC15) -> Phoenician (BC10) -> Latin (BC7)

The modern alphabet with 26 letters started in the 16th century. The development of the English alphabet had influences from the Semitic, Phoenician, Greek and Roman scripts. It’s quite interesting to learn how each letter was formed.

  • A/a: cow head -> alp(ha) -> head
    • ace
    • ache
    • acid
    • acupuncture
    • acute
    • alphabet
    • alps
    • alt
    • altitude
    • anger
    • angle
    • arrow
    • ash
    • aspect
    • cash
    • dash
    • lash
    • sharp
  • B/b: home -> two -> bet(ween) -> wood -> born
    • abandon (a + ban + dan)
    • back
    • bag
    • bald (ball + d)
    • band
    • bank
    • bar
    • bare
    • basket
    • base
    • be
    • belly
    • belt (belly + tie)
    • bend
    • bike
    • bind
    • bio
    • birth
    • board
    • boil
    • bond
    • born
    • both
    • boundary
    • bounce
    • bund
    • bundle
    • bow
    • box
    • bra
    • brace
    • brain
    • branch
    • breed
    • breast
    • brew
    • bright
    • broom
    • brother
    • brow
    • bud
    • build
    • burn
    • by
  • C/c: spear -> gamma -> sunken (borrow pronunciation like g, k)
    • cap
    • cash (a palm to catch)
    • catch (a palm to catch with c shape)
    • cave (cavity of a mountain)
    • cavern
    • canyon
    • chant
    • chap
    • charm
    • chin
    • chop
    • chord
    • chorus
    • cite
    • clam
    • clap
    • claw
    • crawl
    • creep
    • crescent
    • crib
    • cry
    • concord
    • confirm
    • constitute
    • copy
    • cough
    • cove
    • cuff
    • cup
    • curse
    • cut
  • D/d: door -> dome -> down
    • dam
    • dawn
    • day
    • deep
    • dent
    • depth
    • derma
    • desk
    • dice
    • dig
    • dim
    • diner
    • dinner
    • diss
    • dock
    • dog
    • dome
    • down
    • drain
    • drink
    • drip
    • drool
    • drop
    • dusk
    • dust
  • E/e: eye
    • peep (watch with your palm around your eyes)
  • G/g: tool
    • dog
  • H/h: fence -> shelter -> ladder -> aspirate
    • hack
    • hall
    • hammer
    • hand
    • happy
    • hard
    • hash
    • hat
    • heave
    • head
    • heart
    • height
    • helmet
    • hello
    • hey
    • hi
    • hit
    • home
    • honest
    • honor
    • hood
    • hope
    • horse
    • hot
    • house
    • hug
    • huge
    • human
    • hut
  • L/l: long -> horizontal
    • lash
    • lect
    • leg
    • level
    • line
    • lingua
    • light
    • long
    • look
    • love
  • M/m: peak
    • mountain (mountains with several peaks)
    • man, male (man is reliable as a mountain)
    • match (match is a game between men)
  • N/n: snake -> fold
    • connect (con - neck)
  • P/p: palm
    • palm (it’s p + arm, a palm is a part connected the arm)
    • patch
    • phone
  • R/r: head
    • root (the head of something)
  • S/s: plant
    • Seed
  • T/t: symbol
    • cat
  • V/v: valley -> hollow
    • vase
    • vagina
    • vent
    • vest
    • village
    • villa
    • vessel
    • v = w
      • wind
      • want
      • white
  • W/w: water
    • woman (woman is mild like water)
    • watch (man play match, woman watch it)
    • weep (water in eyes, and wipe with palm)
  • Z/z: zip

Root

  • act: to do (e.g. action)
    • From Latin actus, agere
  • al: beyond (e.g. allergy)
  • algi: pain (e.g. neuralgia)
  • alt: tall
  • alter: the other (e.g. alternate)
  • anim: life (e.g. animal)
  • art: to do, make (e.g. artificial)
  • astr: star (e.g. astronaut)
  • bar: bar, obstacle (e.g. embarrass, barrack)
    • From Latin barra
  • bal: the same as bar (e.g. balance, balk, baluster)
  • ban: the same as bar (e.g. abandon, banner, banquet, bank)
    • Italian banchi, the root of the Italian word for banks
  • bat: to beat (e.g. battle, debate)
  • bene: fine (e.g. benefit, benefactor)
  • bow: to bend (e.g. bowstring)
  • canon: a rule or law (e.g. canonical)
  • cap: the same as cept (e.g. capable, capsule)
  • capt: the same as cept (e.g. captor, capture, captivate)
  • cas: the same as cept (eg. cassette)
  • carn: flesh (e.g. carnage)
  • ceit: the same as cept (e.g. conceit, deceit)
  • ceiv: the same as cept (e.g. perceive, receive, deceive, conceive, transceiver)
  • cept: to take; to grasp; to hold (e.g. accept, except, concept, recept, incept, percept, intercept, deception, precept, contracept, sceptic)
  • cip: the same as cept (e.g. emancipate, recipe, incipient)
  • cerebr: brain (e.g. cerebral)
  • cess: movement, migration (e.g. process)
  • chlor: chlor (e.g. chloroform)
  • cip: the same as cept
  • circum: circle (e.g. circumscribe)
  • cite: to move, set in motion, stir, rouse, call, invite (e.g. recite)
  • clude: to shut, close (e.g. include)
    • From Latin cludere, the more literal sense of “close, shut up, prevent access to”
  • col: column (e.g. coliform, col + i + form)
  • cover: cover (e.g. coverall, bedcover, covert)
  • cri: to sieve (e.g. crisis, crime, endocrine)
  • cribr: sieve, tube with holes (e.g. cribriform)
  • cruc: cross (e.g. cruciform)
  • cunei: cunei (e.g. cuneiform)
  • cup: the same as cept (e.g. occupy, recuperate)
  • cuss: strike, hit, shake (e.g. percuss)
  • deme: people (e.g. pandemic)
    • From Greek demos
  • dek: to take, accept (e.g. decorate)
  • dent: a hollow area in the surface of something (e.g. dental)
    • From Latin dint
  • dict: to say, speak; say often, prescribe (e.g. dictionary, dictate. verdict)
  • digm: to show (e.g. paramdigm)
    • Cognate with Latin dicere “to show;”
    • from PIE root *deik- “to show,” also “pronounce solemnly”
  • don: to give, present as a gift, contribute (e.g. donate, doner, abandon)
  • draw: act of pulling (e.g. drawstring)
  • duc: to lead (e.g. educate, introduce)
    • From Latin ducere
  • earth: ground, soil, dirt, dry land; country, district (e.g. earthmover)
  • erg: to do; work; activity (e.g. energy, synergy)
  • ev: age (e.g. medieval)
    • From Latin aevum
  • fact: to form, build (e.g. factor)
  • fall: downward movement (e.g. waterfall)
  • fame: fame, reputation
  • fect: doing (e.g. perfect)
  • fer: to carry, to bear (e.g. confer, infer, transfer)
    • From Latin ferre
  • for: the same as fer
  • fibr a thread, string (e.g. fiber, neurofibroma)
  • fict: the same as fact (e.g. fiction)
  • fin: end, limit, acme (e.g. define, final, finance, infinite, confine)
  • fiss: to split (e.g. fission, fissiparous)
  • flu: the affects between objects (e.g. influence, flush)
    • From Latin fluere
  • flux: the same as flu (e.g. fluctuate)
  • fore: former, earlier (e.g. forearm, forehand, foresee)
  • form: shape, look, etc. (e.g. transform, formula)
    • It comes from Latin formare
  • gene: give birth, beget; race, kind; native, natural (e.g. general, generation, genuine, antigen, pathogen)
  • gn: the same as gene (e.g. pregnant)
  • glossa language, tongue
    • From Greek glōtta
  • glotta: the same as glossa (e.g. polyglot)
  • gram: that which is drawn; a picture, a drawing (e.g. program)
  • graph: process of writing or recording (e.g. photograph, biography, autograph)
  • half: half (e.g. halfway)
  • ham: hollow or bend of the knee (e.g. hamstring)
  • heal: heal (e.g. healthy)
  • helic: spiral (e.g. helicopter)
  • helix: the same as helic
  • hemo: blood (e.g. hemostat)
  • high: high (e.g. highlight)
  • hist: tissue (e.g. histoplasmin, histopathology)
  • hol: whole, entire, complete (e.g. whole, holistic, holocaust, hologram)
    • From Greek holos
  • hu: clay (e.g. human)
  • hydra: water; wet (e.g. hydrate, hydrant)
  • hydro: the same as hydra (e.g. hydrogen, hydroplane)
  • ill: bad, from evil (e.g. illness)
  • image: copy, statue, picture (e.g. imagination)
    • From Latin imago
  • kep: the same as cep (e.g. skeptic, keep)
  • lat:take, borne, to bear, to carry (e.g. relate = re + lat + ate, oblate, collate, translate, illation, ablate, dilate, prelate, superlative, legislate)
    • The same as fer
  • land: land (e.g. motherland, fatherland, landmark, mainland)
  • late: late
  • lax: loose (e.g. laxity, relax)
  • lect: to pick out, choose; to collect, gather; law; to speak (e.g. collect, lecture, lexicon, elect, select, neglect, dialect, idiolect)
  • leg: the same as lect (e.g. delegate, legal, privilege, legend, legacy, college, legislate)
  • legis: the same as leg (e.g. legisation)
  • lex: the same as lect (e.g. lexicon, lexicography)
  • lic: to be allowed, be lawful (e.g. license)
    • Possibly source also of Lettish likstu “I come to terms”
  • lig: the same as lect (e.g. intelligent, eligible, negligent, diligent)
  • lith: stone (e.g. monolith, lithography)
  • liter: letter, alphabetic sign; literature, books (e.g. literature)
    • From Latin litera/littera
  • loc: a place, spot (e.g. local, locomote)
  • log: speech; to speek; word, speech, thought (e.g. logo, logger, apology)
    • From Greek legein = to speak, logos = word, speech, though
    • From Latin loqui = to speak
  • logos: the same as log
  • low: low
  • lun: moon (e.g. lunar)
  • mand: to order (e.g. demand)
  • man: hand (e.g. manufactor, manuscript, mandate, manumit, emancipate)
    • From Latin manus
  • mark: mark
  • mari: of the sea; body of the sea (e.g. marine)
  • mast: great; chief, head, director, teacher (e.g. master)
  • mist: the same as mast (e.g. mistress)
  • miss: the same as mit (e.g. mission, admission, commission, dismiss, missle, promise)
  • mit: let go, send (e.g. admit, permit, commit, submit, manumit, omit, transmit, emit, remit, immit)
    • From Latin mittere
  • me: to measure (e.g. meter, measure)
  • med: to mix (e.g. meddle)
  • medi: in the middle, between; from the middle; intermediate (e.g. immediate, medieval, mediaeval)
  • medit: to meditate, think over, reflect, consider (e.g. meditate)
  • mel: honey (e.g. mellifluous)
    • From Latin mel, related to Greek meli
  • mit: send (e.g. submit, permit)
  • mob: the same as mov (e.g. mob, mobster)
  • mobile: mobile (e.g. mobility)
  • mon: the same as mun (e.g. common)
  • morph: form, shape (e.g. morphology)
    • From Greek morphe
  • mot: the same as mov (e.g. promote, locomote, emote, motif)
  • mov: act of moving from a stationary position, a change of position or relation (e.g. move, movie)
  • mun: mutual, exchange (e.g. municipal)
    • From Latin munus
  • mut: the same as mun (e.g. mutual)
  • nat: be born (e.g. native, nature, naturopathic)
  • nau: boat, sailor (e.g. astronaut, nausea, nautical)
  • nec: not (e.g. neglect)
  • neo: new (e.g. neonatal)
  • nerv: tendon, sinew; to give strength or vigor (e.g. nervous, eneravte)
    • From Latin nervus, Greek neuros
  • neur: the same as nerv (e.g. neural)
  • news: message (e.g. newspaper, newsstand)
    • Message from North, East, West and South
  • nocu: to hurt, injure, harm (e.g. nocuous)
  • non: no (e.g. nonperformance)
  • grand: big, great; full, abundant, full-grown, strong, powerful, weighty, severe (e.g. grandparent)
  • gram: something is written or marked, a picture, a drawing (e.g. telegram, aerogram)
    • From Greek gramma, that which is drawn
  • graph: write, draw, measure (e.g. photograph)
    • From Greek
  • gress: walk (e.g. progress)
  • ocre: be sharp, rise (out) to a point, pierce. (e.g. mediocre, ocrea)
  • od: a way or manner (e.g. method, period, odograph)
    • Method from Latin methodus “way of teaching or going”, meta- + hodos, meth originally pursuit, a following after
  • org: the same as erg (e.g. organize)
  • ori: rise (e.g. oriented )
    • From Latin, the position that sun rising from.
  • out: out (e.g. outperform)
  • passi: the same as patho (e.g. passion, passive, compassion)
  • patho: to feel, to suffer (e.g. pathology)
    • From Greek pathos
  • pathy: the same as patho (e.g. pathetic, apathy, sympathy)
  • pati: the same as patho (e.g. patient, compatible)
    • From Latin pat(i)
  • pact: to fix, fasten (e.g. compact, pactum, package)
  • par: the same as pear (e.g. parent, primipara, fissiparous)
  • pear: to come forth, be visible; submit, obey (e.g. appear)
  • pheme: speech, voice, utterance, a speaking (e.g. eupheme)
  • phone: voice; related to language (e.g. phonetic, telephone)
    • English comes from Proto-Phoenician
  • phot: light (e.g. photo, photostat)
  • play: play (e.g. playbook)
  • ple: to fill, full (e.g. complement, accomplish, compliant, plenty)
    • From Latin plere
  • plet: the same as ple (e.g. complete, deplete, replete, expletive)
  • plect: the same as pli (e.g. complect)
  • plex: the same as pli (e.g. perplex, complex, multiplex)
  • please: please, aggreeable (e.g. unpleasant)
  • pli: to fold, to plait, to weave together, (e.g. complicate, explicit, duplicate, application, simple, supple)
    • From Latin plicare
  • plic: the same as pli (e.g. explicate, implicate, supplicate)
  • plo: the same as pli (e.g. employ, deploy, diploma)
  • ply: the same as pli (e.g. apply, imply, reply, supply, comply)
  • preci: reward, honor, fame, prize, value, worth (e.g. precious, appreciate)
  • prais: the same as preci (e.g. appraise)
  • pric: the same as preci (e.g. price, pricy, pricey)
  • priz: the same as preci (e.g. prize, prizefight)
  • prehend: grap, grasp, arrest (e.g. comprehension)
    • From Latin, prehendere
  • press: press (e.g. pressman)
    • From Latin pressare
  • prem: the same as prim (e.g. premier, premium)
  • prim: very first, original (e.g. primipara)
  • priv: private (e.g. privilege)
  • psycho: breath, spirit, soul (e.g. psychology, psychopathology)
    • From Greek psykhē
  • put: think
  • pol: citadel, fort, city (e.g. politic, polite, police)
    • From Greek polis
  • poor: poor
  • port: to lead, pass over (e.g. import, export, transport, portable)
  • pos: powerful; lord; (e.g. possess, possible, position)
  • pot: the same as pos (e.g. potential)
  • quar: four (e.g. square, quarantine)
  • que: to ask, to seek (e.g. quest)
  • quire: the same as que (e.g. require, inquire)
  • rear: back, behind; to rise (e.g. rearview, rearrange)
    • From Latin retro
  • rect: rect, right angle, a straight line (e.g. correct, direct)
  • rive: shore, bank, break
  • rupt: to break apart (e.g. corrupt, bankrupt)
  • sal: something from sea (e.g. salt, salty)
  • sau: to salt (e.g. sauce, salad = sauce + laid, sausage = sauce + age)
    • From root sal
  • sci: to know (e.g. science, conscious, prescience, nescience)
    • From Latin scire/scientis
  • scop: to observe; to look (e.g. fluoroscopy, spectroscope, telecsope, microscope)
    • suffixed form of root spec
  • scribe: to write or something written (e.g. subscribe)
  • scribble: careless writing, drawing
  • script: the same as scribe
  • sect: to cut (e.g. sector)
  • sem: one; as one, together with; same (e.g. seminar)
    • Proto-Indo-European root
  • sembl: the same as sem (e.g. resemble, semblance, assemble)
  • seri: heavy, weighty (e.g. serious)
  • sev: the same as seri (e.g. severe)
  • sim: the same as sem (e.g. simple)
  • simil: the same as sem (e.g. similar, facsimile)
  • simul: the same as sem (e.g. simulate)
  • som: the same as sem (e.g. some)
  • sm: the same as sem
  • short: short
  • smog: smog
  • spec: look at, to observe (e.g. suspecion, speculate, spectrum, spectroscope)
    • From Latin specere
  • speci: the same as spec (e.g. special, especial, specify, specie)
  • spect: the same as spec (e.g. aspect, respect, inspect, suspect, spectator, perspective, circumspect, conspectus, prospect, spectacle, retrospect, introspect, bespectacled)
  • sper: to hope (e.g. desperate, prosperity)
    • From Latin sperare
  • spic: the same as spec (e.g. spice, suspicion, auspice)
  • spi: the same as spec
  • spir: breath (e.g. spirit, conspire, inspire, expire)
  • spite: dislike, regard with ill will (e.g. despite, spiteful, respite)
  • spond: to pledge (e.g. respond)
    • From Latin spondere
  • spons: the same as spond
  • spong: spong (e.g. spongiform)
  • spy: the same as spec (e.g. spyglass, espy)
  • sid: to sit, to settle (e.g. consider, preside, reside)
    • From Latin sidere, opposite with st
    • The sid (sideris) means heavenly body, star, constellation
  • sit: the same as sid (e.g. site, situate, position, visit)
  • sed: the same as sid (e.g. supersede, sediment, sedate, sedentary)
  • sess: the same as sid (e.g. possess, obsess, assess, session, sessile)
  • st: to stand, make or be firm (e.g. state, stand, still, stage, stay, rest, store, test, staff, stable, establish, institute, constitute, substitute, obstacle, obstinate, stall, stiff, install, prostitute, destiny, destination, stalemate, stalwart, oust, stiff, stub, stem, stamp)
  • sist: the same as st (e.g. assist, exist, insist, persist)
  • soci: companion, ally (e.g. social, sociopath)
  • star: star
  • stat: the same as st (e.g. state st + ate, upstate, overstate)
  • stil: the same as st (e.g. still)
  • stem: the same as st (e.g. system)
  • stin: the same as st (e.g. mediastinal)
  • stit: the same as st (e.g. constitute)
    • Meaning motionless, stable, fixed, stationary
    • From Proto-Germanic *stilli- (source also of Old Frisian, Middle Low German, Middle Dutch stille, Dutch stil, Old High German stilli, German still)
  • sti: point, prick, pierce (e.g. stick, stimulus)
  • str: draw tight, bind tight, compress, press together
  • strain: the same as str (e.g. constrain, restrain, eyestrain)
  • strang: the same as str (e.g. strange, strangle, estrange)
  • stress: the same as str (e.g. distress)
  • strict: the same as str (e.g. stricture, restrict, district)
  • string: the same as str (e.g. drawstring, hamstring, bowstring)
  • struct: build (e.g. construct)
    • From Latin, structura, from struere, the way an organization, system, market etc is organized or put together.
  • suit: to follow (e.g. suitcase)
    • From Latin sequi
  • sum: whole, totality, gist; highest, uppermost (e.g. summary, summitry)
  • sume: to take, obtain, buy, distribute (e.g. consume, presume, subsume, assume, resume)
    • From Latin sumere
  • sumpt: the same as sum (e.g. consumption, sumpter)
  • sui: one’s own (e.g. suicide)
    • From Latin sui “of oneself” (genitive of se “self”)
  • swim: swim
  • syn: to place together, organize, form in order (e.g. synergy)
    • From stem of synistanai
  • sys: the same as syn (e.g. system)
  • tail: to cut in pieces (e.g. tailor, detail)
  • tain: to hold, to stretch (e.g. contain, detain, retain)
  • tane: time (e.g. simultaneously)
  • techn: art, skill (e.g. technology, techn + o + logy)
    • From Latin technicus, also from Greek tekhnikos
  • terra: earth (e.g. mediterranean)
  • termin: end, limit (e.g. terminal, determine)
  • tine: sharp point, spike (e.g. quarantine)
  • tire: become weary, exhausted (e.g. overtire)
  • tom: divide (e.g. atom, prostatectomy)
  • top: top
  • toxi: poison (e.g. toxic, toxin = toxic + in)
  • tutor: to protect; to be strong (e.g. tutorial, tuition)
  • under: under (e.g. underline)
  • urg: the same as erg (e.g. urge, surgery=s hand + urg + ery)
  • vac: be empty, free, or at leisure (e.g. vacation, evacuate)
  • vacu: the same as vac (e.g. vacuity, vacuous, vacuum)
  • vain: the same as vac
  • vall: valley (e.g. )
  • van: the same as vac (e.g. vanity, vanish, evanish, evanesce)
  • void: the same as vac
  • vas: a tube, duct, or conduit for conveying blood, lymph, semen, etc. (e.g. vasopressor, vasoconstriction)
  • vent: wind (e.g. adventure)
  • ver: true, trustworthy (e.g. verdict)
  • verb: a word; to speak, say (e.g. verbal)
  • vey: the same as vid (e.g. survey, purvey)
  • vi: road (e.g. via, obviate, obvious, previous, trivia)
  • via: the same as vi
  • vict win (e.g. victim)
    • The ancient Roman mythological character Victoria, goddess of victory.
  • vinc: overcome, conquer (e.g. convince)
    • It comes from Latin word vincere.
    • After Caesar put down the rebellion, he issued a three-V instrument, which is “Veni, Vedi, Vici”, and it means “I came, I saw, I conquered”.
  • vid: the same as vis (e.g. video, provide, providence, evident) From Latin videre
  • vil: the same as vall (e.g. village, villa)
  • view: the same as vid (e.g. viewpoint, interview, review, preview, overview, rearview, purview)
  • vis: to see (e.g. visit, vision, advise, revision, visual, supervise, previse, televise, improvise, proviso, provision, visa, visage)
  • voc: voice, call (e.g. voice, vocational, advocate)
  • vol: to turn, revolve, roll; will (e.g. revolve, evolve, involve, volume)
  • voy: way, journey (e.g. voyage)
    • From French
  • watch: keep watch, be awake (e.g. watchdog)
  • way: way
  • wave: wave (e.g. waveform )
  • wis: the same as vis (e.g. wish, wise)
  • wit: the same as vis (e.g. witness)

Prefix

  • a: off, of, away from; emphatic (e.g. away, apart, ascribe, atom, abandon, apply, apathy)
    • From Latin
  • ab: away, from, from off, down (e.g. abuse)
  • acu: cusp (e.g. acupressure)
  • ad: to (e.g. advocate, admit)
  • aero: air (e.g. aerostat)
  • ana: on, upon, above; back; again (e.g. analog, anatomy)
    • Before vowels an-, word-forming element
  • andeno: gland-like (e.g. andenoma, andenovirus)
  • ant: in front of, forehead, before (e.g. antedate, anteroom, anticipate, antique)
  • anti: opposed to or against something (e.g. anti-virus, antibiotic, antipathetic, anti-cheating)
  • as: the same as ad (e.g. assist)
  • agri: relating to farming (e.g. agriculture, agribusiness)
  • agro: the same as agri (e.g. agrobiology, agro-industry)
  • al: all (e.g. alway)
  • apo: off, away from (e.g. apology, apostate)
    • From Greek
  • au: the same as eu (e.g. auspice)
  • be: about, around, on all sides (e.g. bemuse)
  • bi: two (e.g. binary, biweekly, bicycle, bicentennial, bisexual, bilingual)
  • bi(o): relating to or using living things (e.g. biomedical, biography)
  • by: the same as be (e.g. bypass, bygone, bylaw, bystander)
  • cardio: relating to the heart (e.g. cardiograph)
  • cephal: head, uppermost or top part, source (e.g. cephalopod, encephalopathy)
    • Modern Latin combining form of Greek kephalē
  • circum: around, round about, all around, on all sides (e.g. circumstance)
    • From Latin adverb and preposition circum “around, round about,” literally “in a circle,” probably accusative form of circus “ring” (see circus).
  • co: the same as com (e.g. costar, cognate, cooperate, coexist, coeducation)
  • col: the same as com (e.g. colleague)
  • com: with, together, together with, in combination; sometimes merely emphatic; (e.g. compress)
    • From Latin com, cum
  • con: the same as com (e.g. confirm, convergence, constant, constitute, conscious)
    • It is the form of com- used in Latin before consonants except -b-, -p-, -l-, -m-, or -r-.
  • cor: same as con (e.g. corrupt, correct, correlate)
    • The form used for com- before the letter r
  • cryo: of or involving very low temperatures (e.g. cryostat)
  • contra: against or opposite (e.g. contraband, contradictory, contracept)
  • counter: against, in opposition; in return; corresponding, (e.g. counteract, counterfeit, countermove)
    • from Anglo-French countre-, French contre-, from Latin contra “opposite, contrary to, against, in return,” also used as a prefix (see contra (prep., adv.)
  • de: opposite, remove, reduce, from, entirely, completely, off, without (e.g. deform, deviate, describe, demote, debate, deserve, derive, derail, deduct, detail, determine, demand, deploy, deselect, deplete, desperate, descend, despite)
    • used to add the meaning “opposite”, “remove”, or “reduce” to a noun or verb:
  • detrite: erosion (e.g. detrition)
  • di: two, double, twice, twofold; apart, asunder(e.g. direct, divergence, diploma)
    • From Greek, cognate with bi-, meaning “two, twice”
    • From Latin, dis-, meaning “apart, asunder”
  • dia: across, between; through, throughout (e.g. dialect, dialog)
    • before vowels, di-, word-forming element meaning “through, in different directions, between,”
  • dis: not or opposite (e.g. disagree)
  • du: the same as di (e.g. duplicate, duplex)
  • dys: bad, ill; hard, difficult; abnormal, imperfect (e.g. dysfunction)
    • From Greek dys-
  • e: same as ex (e.g. evict)
  • ec: the same as ex- (e.g. eclectic)
  • ecto: outside, external (e.g. ectoderm)
    • Word-forming element generally before vowels ect-
    • From Latinized form of Greek adverb ektos “outside, out of; free from; exempt”
  • electro: electrical, electricity (e.g. electrotechnics)
  • em: the form used for en- before b, m, or p (e.g. empower, embody)
  • en: in, into (e.g. enslave, envalope)
  • endo: inside, within, internal (e.g. endogenous, endocrine)
    • Word-forming element from Greek endon “in, within”
  • epi: on, upon, above;in addition to; toward, among; (e.g. epistemic)
    • Before vowels reduced to ep-, before aspirated vowels eph-
  • es: to be (emphatic) (e.g. essence, espresso)
    • Proto-Indo-European root meaning “to be.”
  • eu: good, well (e.g. eupheme)
  • ex: out of, from, upwards, completely, deprive of, former (e.g. express, extra = ex + trans)
    • From Latin ex “out of, from within; from which time, since; according to; in regard to”
    • From PIE *eghs “out” (source also of Gaulish ex-, Old Irish ess-, Old Church Slavonic izu, Russian iz).
    • In some cases also from Greek cognate ex, ek
    • Often reduced to e- before -b-, -d-, -g-, consonantal -i-, -l-, -m-, -n-, -v- (as in elude, emerge, evaporate, etc.).
  • geo: relating to the Earth or its surface (e.g. geostationary)
  • gyre: the same as gyro (e.g. gyrencephalic)
  • gyro: a ring, circle (e.g. gyrate, gyroscope)
    • From Greek gyros
  • hetero: other, opposite, different (e.g. heterogeneous, heterosexual)
  • homo: one and the same (e.g. homogeneous, homosexual)
  • homeo: like, resembling, of the same kind; equal (e.g. homeopathy)
    • Latinized from Greek homio-, from homoios
  • hypo: less than usual, especially too little; the same as sub-, under (e.g. hypotherm, hypostatic)
  • idio: one’s own, personal, private (e.g. idiolect, idiomatic, idiopathic)
  • il: used instead of in- before the letter l (e.g. illegal, illiterate)
  • im: not, opposite of; in,into; emphatic (e.g. immobile, impersonal, implant, impress, immovable, impassion, immit, impossible)
    • The form used for in- before b, m, or p
    • In some English words it alternates with em-
  • in: the same as im- (e.g. invalid, insufficient, inform, inland, inquire)
  • infra: below, under (e.g. infrastructure)
  • inter: between or involving two or more different things (e.g. internet, interact)
  • intro: into, especially into the inside (e.g. introduce)
  • immun: free, exempt (e.g. immunosuppression)
    • From Latin immunis “exempt from public service, untaxed; unburdened, not tributary,” literally “not paying a share,” from assimilated form of in- “not, opposite of” (see in-) + munis “performing services” (compare municipal), suffixed form of root *mei- “to change, go, move.” Specific modern medical sense of “exempt (from a disease)
  • ir: used instead of in- before the letter r (e.g. irregular)
  • is: separate, apart (e.g. island)
  • macro: extremely large (e.g. macromedia)
  • mal: bad (e.g. malware)
  • main: main (e.g. main)
  • magn: big
  • matri: mother (e.g. matrimony)
  • meta: beyond or at a higher level; relating to a change of state or position; (e.g. metaphysical, metabolism, metastatic)
  • micro: extremely small (e.g. microphone, microwave)
  • mini: less; subordinate; small (e.g. minimum, minister)
  • mis: badly, wrongly (e.g. mistake, misinform, misunderstand)
  • mono: single, alone (e.g. monolith)
  • multi: multiple (e.g. multiform)
  • mus: music, art, entertainment (e.g. music, museum)
    • In classical Greece, any art in which the Muses presided, but especially music and lyric poetry.
  • myo: relating to the muscle tissue (e.g. myocardial, cardiomyopathy)
  • nano: nano (e.g. nanostructure, nanotechnology)
  • ne: the same as neg (e.g. nescience)
  • neg: not; to deny (e.g. negtive)
  • net: net (e.g. internet)
  • non: not, none = no one (e.g. nonformal)
  • nephro: kidney (e.g. nephrology)
  • ob: toward(emphatic), against, before, near, across, down (e.g. obstruct, obsess, omit, obliterate, oblate)
  • oc: the same as ob- (e.g. occupy)
  • omni: everything or everywhere, all (e.g. omnipresent, omnidirectional, omniscient)
  • op: the same as ob- (e.g. oppress)
    • assimilated form of ob- before -p-
  • ortho: straight, true, correct, regular (e.g. orthostatic)
    • before vowels, word-forming element, now mostly in scientific and technical compounds, from Greek orthos.
  • osteo: relating to bones (e.g. osteopath)
  • over: over (e.g. overfly)
  • pan: all, every, whole, all-inclusive (e.g. pandemic)
    • From Greek pan-, combining form of pas
  • para: alongside, beyond; altered; contrary; irregular, abnormal (e.g. paramedic, parastatal, paralegal)
    • From Greek para-, before vowels, par-, word-forming element.
  • per: through; throughout; thoroughly; entirely, utterly (e.g. perfect, perform, persist, permit)
  • pir: pear (e.g. piriform)
  • plat: small place (e.g. platform)
  • poly: multiple, entire (e.g. polytechnic)
  • pre: before, ahead (e.g. preformed)
    • From Latin prae-, before, ahead
  • pro: forward, before (e.g. promote, prostitute)
    • It comes from Prometheus, who can predict the future.
  • pur: the same as pro (e.g. purpose, purview, purvey)
    • A variant of Latin pro “before, for” (see pro-)
    • The earliest form of the prefix in English, and it is retained in some words, but in others it has been corrected to Latinate pro-.
  • pyro: something related to fire (e.g. pyrotechnics)
  • From Greek pyr (genitive pyros)
  • quad: related to quantity of four
  • quasi: as if, as it were (e.g. quasi-static, quasi-legal, quasi-science)
  • re: back, again (e.g. response, review, reunite, revolve, replete, recipe)
  • retina: net-like tunic (e.g. retinal, retinopathy)
    • From Latin rete “net”
  • rheo: a flowing, stream, current (e.g. rheostat)
    • from Greek rheos, which is related to rhein “to flow”
  • se: without, apart, aside, on one’s own (e.g. select, secret)
  • seam: to bind, sew (e.g. seamstress)
  • semi: half
  • sens: understanding or feeling of something (e.g. sense)
  • sent: the same as sens (e.g. consent)
  • soci: partner (e.g. social, soci + al)
  • sol: uninjured, in good health, safe (e.g. solid)
    • From Latin salvificus “saving”
  • stereo: solid, firm; three-dimensional; stereophonic (e.g. stereotype)
    • From Greek stereos “solid”, before vowels stere-, word-forming element
  • sub: under (e.g. subway(Americanism, underway is british style), substructure, subtitle, submarine)
  • sup: the same as sub (e.g. suppress, support, supple)
    • Assimilated form of sub- before -p-
  • sur: over, above, beyond, in addition; the same as sub (e.g. surface, survey)
    • From Anglo-French and Old French, from Old French sour-, sor-, sur-, from Latin super
    • Assimilated form of sub- before -r-.
  • sus: the same as sub (e.g. sustain)
    • Assimilated form of sub- before -s-.
  • super: above (e.g. superstructure, superstring)
  • tele: at or over a long distance (e.g. television, telephone, telegraph, telecast, telemeter)
  • therm: heat, hot, warm (e.g. hetertherm, thermostat)
  • tra: the same as trans
  • traf: the same as trans
  • trans: across, beyond, through, on the other side of, to go beyond (e.g. transparent, transcribe)
  • tri: three, having three, once every three (e.g. trivia, triangle, tricycle, triplex)
  • tro: the same as trans (e.g. retrospect)
  • twi: two, twice, double, in two ways (e.g. twilight)
  • under: below, beneath; between, among; before (e.g. undertake, understand)
  • uni: one, single, un + i (e.g. uniform)
  • use: use (e.g. usage)
  • vore: devour (e.g. devore)
  • vaso: container, vessel (e.g. vasopressin, vasopressor, vasodilation)
    • Combining form of Latin vas (see vas)
  • zymo: make, brew (e.g. zymotechnics)
    • From Greek zymo-, branch of chemistry which deals with wine-making and brewing

Vowel + 2 Consonant patterns:

  • a??: emphatic (e.g. attention, apprehend, afflux, assure, assiduous, apparent, acquire, allege, alliterate)
  • e??: out of, same as ex- (e.g. eccentric, effluent, efflux)
  • i??: not, emphatic, same as ir- (e.g. irregular)
  • o??: opposite of, emphatic, same as op- (e.g. oppress)

Variants:

  • com- = con- = col- = cor- = co-
  • di- = dis- = de- = is-
  • in- = im- = il = ir = un- (e.g. impolite, illigal, irregular)
  • sub- = sup- = sur- = sus-
  • en- = em- = in- = im- (e.g. enrich, enlarge, encourage, impassion)
  • super- = over-
  • inter- = intel- = enter- (e.g. )
  • trans- = tra- = tro = tro (e.g. extra, extro, intra, intro, retra, retro)

Suffix

  • a: noun (e.g formula, primipara, quota, plena, media, summa, visa)
  • al: noun or adjective (e.g. verbal, medial, similar)
  • ade: noun (e.g. barriecade)
    • Denoting an action or product of an action, via French, Spanish, or Italian, ultimately from Latin -ata, fem.
  • ase: noun, used in naming enzymes, from ending of diastase (biochemistry). (e.g. transcriptase)
  • age: noun, the same as ic (e.g. formage, sausage)
    • Word-forming element in nouns of act, process, function, condition, from
    • From Old French and French -age, from Late Latin -aticum “belonging to, related to,” originally neuter adjectival suffix
  • an: noun or adjective (e.g. median)
  • ance: noun (e.g. performance, appearance, balance, governance)
    • The action, state, or quality of doing something or of being something
  • ant: noun (e.g. informant, assistant, redundant, significant)
    • Someone or something that does something
  • able: adjective
  • ability: noun (able + i + ty)
  • acle: noun (e.g. obstacle, spectacle)
  • acy: noun; quality, state, or condition (e.g. obstinacy, legacy, mediacy)
  • ade: noun (e.g. blockade)
    • Word-forming delement denoting an action or product of an action
  • ar: noun, the same as -er, someone who does somthing; adjective, relating to somthing (e.g. liar, polar, circular, stellar, commissar)
  • ary: adjective or noun; having to do with, characterized by, tending to, place for (e.g. arbitrary, monetary, plenary)
    • from Middle English -orie, from Old North French -ory, -orie (Old French -oir, -oire), from Latin -orius, -oria, -orium
  • at: noun or verb (e.g. formate, commissariat)
  • ate: verb or adjective or noun
    • Verb, make something doing (e.g. regulate, control somthing or make it regular)
    • Adjective, full of or showing a particular quality (e.g. affectionate, collegiate, passionate)
    • Noun, job, rank, or degree of a particular quality/type/duty…
  • ation: noun (ate + ion)
  • ative: noun (ate + ive)
  • cide: noun (e.g. suicide)
    • used to form words referring to substances that kill a particular thing
  • craft: noun, skill
  • crat: noun, governing (e.g. democrat)
  • cracy: noun, same as ocrat (e.g. e.g. democracy)
  • dom: noun, abstract suffix of state (e.g. freedom, random)
    • From Old English dom “statute, judgment” (see doom)
  • don: verb (e.g. abandon)
  • e: noun (e.g. promote, movie, motorcade, cycle, home, vehicle, creme, sauce, tine, square, crime, envalope, nerve)
    • Sometime is adjective (e.g. remote, marine, simple)
  • ed: adjective
  • el: noun (e.g. barrel)
    • instrumental word-forming element, expressing “appliance, tool,” from Old English -ol, -ul, -el, representing PIE *-lo- (see -ule). In modern English usually -le except after -n-.
    • Suffix -al origins from here
  • en: verb, adjective or noun is rarely seen (e.g. barren)
  • ence: the same as ance (e.g. violence)
  • end: noun (e.g. legend)
  • ent: adjective or noun (e.g. different, recipient, patient, scient)
    • Making adjectives from nouns or verbs, from French
  • er: noun, executor of an action
  • ery: noun or adjective, the same as -ary (e.g. stationery)
  • ese: noun, language name (e.g. legalese)
  • esce: verb, to leave, abandon, give out (e.g. evanesce)
  • ess: noun, female (e.g. actress, waitress, tigress, directress, mistress)
  • esis: noun, the same as etic (e.g. pathogenesis)
  • etic: adjective, pertaining to (e.g. pathetic)
    • From Greek -etikos, adjectival suffix for nouns ending in -esis
  • ette: noun, a small thing of a particular type (e.g. barrette, snackette, statuette, cassette)
  • fic: adjective, making, creating (e.g. scientific)
    • From French -fique and directly from Latin -ficus “making, doing”
  • ful: full of, having, characterized by (e.g. hateful, hopeful, bellyful)
    • Word-forming element attached to nouns (and in modern English to verb stems)
  • fy: verb, make, make into (e.g. rectify, verify, falsify, qualify, specify)
    • From French -fier
    • From Latin -ficare, combining form of facere “to make”
  • hood: noun (e.g. likelihood, parenthood, childhood, neighborhood)
    • state or condition of being, from old English
  • i: noun (e.g. literati)
    • The same as -a, -e
  • ia: noun, in names of countries, diseases, and flowers (e.g. Asia)
    • From Latin and Greek -ia, noun ending, in Greek especially used in forming abstract nouns (typically of feminine gender);
  • ible: the same as able (e.g. invincible)
  • ibility: noun (ible + i + ty)
  • ic: adjective, having to do with, having the nature of, being, made of, caused by, similar to (e.g. iconic, music)
    • From French -ique and directly from Latin -icus or from cognate Greek -ikos
  • ics: noun, ic + s, the study of something (e.g. bioinformatics)
  • id: noun or verb, rarely adjective (e.g. liquid, fluid, solid = sol + id; polyploid = poly + plo + id)
  • ile: the same as ible
  • ine: none (e.g. vaccine)
  • im: noun, meaning man (e.g. victim)
  • ine: adjective, of, like (e.g. aniline, aquiline)
  • ina: the same as ine (e.g. retina = rete + ina)
  • ing: adjective (e.g. fitting)
  • ion: noun (e.g. formation, vision)
  • ish: noun or adjective or verb, something of one place, quite (e.g. nourish, youngish, finish, vanish)
  • ism: noun, principle (something’s abstraction)
  • ist: noun, people, principle (e.g. formalist)
  • it: the same as id (e.g. unit, complicit, explicit)
  • itude: noun, something’s abstraction (e.g. plenitude)
  • ity: noun, related to a state or quality, i + ty (e.g. performatity)
    • Added to adjectives to form nouns
  • itis: noun, an illness or infection that affects a particular part of your body (e.g. neuritis)
  • ium: noun (e.g. scriptorium, technetium, medium)
  • ive: adjective (e.g. active)
  • ise: verb (Americanism)
  • ize: verb (British Style)
  • istic: ist + ic (e.g. formalistic)
  • itis: noun (e.g. periodontitis)
    • An illness or infection that affects a particular part of your body
  • latry: noun, worship of (e.g. technolatry, bardolatry)
    • From Greek -latreia “worship, service paid to the gods, hired labor,” related to latron (n.) “pay, hire,” latris “servant, worshipper,” from PIE *le- (1) “to get” (see larceny).
  • le: noun, verb, repeat (e.g. scribble, strangle, missile)
  • less: adjective, negation (e.g. homeless, hopeless, careless, meaningless, useless, regardless)
  • let: noun, small one (e.g. booklet, outlet, coverlet)
  • logy: noun, study (e.g. philosophy)
  • ly: adverb (e.g. easily)
  • ma: noun, mass or lump (e.g. phyma, neuroma, gemma)
  • ment: noun, to show actions, the people who do them, or their results (e.g. government, judgment)
    • Used to form a noun from a verb
  • mony: noun, action, state, condition (e.g. matrimony)
  • ness: noun (e.g. formlessness, sickness, highness, suppleness)
    • A quality or a condition (used to form nouns from adjectives)
  • nomy: subject; manage (e.g. economy, economic)
  • o: noun (e.g. proviso)
    • The same as -a, -e, -i
  • or: the same as -er (e.g. resistor)
  • ora: noun (e.g. plethora)
  • ory: noun, the same as -ary (e.g. victory, directory, formulary, mandatory)
  • ous: adjective, refer to a quality or condition (e.g. numerous)
  • pathy: adjective, path + y; feeling, suffering, emotion; disorder, disease (e.g. neuropathy, homeopathy, sympathy)
    • From Latin -pathia, from Greek -patheia
  • pathic: adjective, the same as path + ic (e.g. neuropathic)
  • phile: noun, someone who likes something (e.g. technophile)
  • phobe: noun, someone who dislikes or hates something (e.g. technophobe)
  • ship: noun, abstraction (e.g. friendship, directorship, musicianship)
  • some: adjective
    • Word-forming element used in making adjectives from nouns or adjectives (and sometimes verbs)
    • Meaning “tending to; causing; to a considerable degree,” from Old English -sum
  • ster: noun, a person who is associated with something (e.g. baluster, gangster)
    • Old English -istre, from Proto-Germanic *-istrijon, feminine agent suffix used as the equivalent of masculine -ere (See -er)
  • tude: the same as -ude (e.g. attitude, aptitude, latitude)
  • ty: noun
  • ude noun, adjective (e.g. attitude, rectitude)
    • Making abstract nouns from adjectives and participles, is fixed to a base or to another suffix ending in -t or -te
    • From French -ude, from Latin -udo (stem -udin-). The equivalent of native -ness
  • ul: adjective, the same as al (e.g. formula, form + ul + a)
  • um: noun (e.g. forum, museum, premium, vacuum, plenum, medium)
  • ur: noun, the same as -er (e.g. voyageur)
  • ure: noun or verb (e.g. structure)
    • Suffix forming abstract nouns of action, from Old French -ure, from Latin -ura, an ending of fem. nouns denoting employment or result.
  • us: noun (e.g. exodus, humerus, rectus, stimulus, genius, literatus)
  • ute: verb or noun (e.g. institute)
    • verb is same as -ate

Variants:

  • -al = -el = -il = -ul
  • -ar = -er = -ir = -or = -ur
  • -able = -ible = -ile = -ble
  • -ary = -ery = -ory
  • -ate = -ite = -ute
    • -ation = -ition = -ution
  • -um = -im = (-am = -em)
  • -ant = -ent = -and = -end (e.g. important, student, legend)
    • noun or adjective; none means man in general
  • -ance = -ence = -ancy = -ency (e.g. balance, fluence)
    • noun; occasionally verb
  • -id = -it (e.g. liquid, fluid)
  • -ize = -ise
  • -ous (= -ious = -eous = -uous)
  • -acle = -acel = -acul (e.g. spectacle)
    • acul + -ar = acular (e.g. spectacular)

Composition

  • age: age, era, epoch (e.g. information-age, college-age)
  • alternative: alternative (e.g. alternative-energy)
  • approved: opproved (e.g. state-approved)
  • appointed: appointed (e.g. state-appointed)
  • based: based on something, base + ed (e.g. information-based, rule-based)
  • best: best (e.g. best-informed)
  • blood: blod (e.g. blood-pressure)
  • bound: bound (e.g. college-bound)
  • by: by (e.g. by-election)
  • certified: certified (e.g. state-certified)
  • chartered: chartered (e.g. state-chartered)
  • clean: clean (e.g. clean-energy)
  • co: company (e.g. co-operation, co-president)
  • cold: cold (e.g. cold-pressed)
  • concent: concent (e.g. informed-consent)
  • cost: cost (e.g. cost-cutting, cost-sharing, low-cost)
  • counter: anti (e.g. counter-reformation)
  • covered: covered (e.g. ice-covered, ivy-covered)
  • cross: cross (e.g. cross-platform)
  • dominated: dominated (e.g. state-dominated)
  • driven: driven (e.g. technology-driven)
  • ex: outward, before (e.g. ex-boyfriend, ex-president, ex-wife)
  • era: era, epoch (e.g. Victorian-era, Depression-era)
  • enforced: enforced (e.g. state-enforced)
  • enhancing: enhance + ing (e.g. performance-enhancing)
  • fed: feed (e.g. formula-fed)
  • fecal: fecal (e.g. fecal-coliform)
  • financed: financed (e.g. state-financed)
  • fine: fine (e.g. fine-structure, fine-grained)
  • first: first (e.g. keyboard-first)
  • fitting: fit + ing (e.g. form-fitting)
  • forming: form + ing (e.g. star-forming)
  • free: free (e.g. free-form)
  • gathering: gather (e.g. information-gathering)
  • hard: hard (e.g. hard-pressed)
  • health: health (e.g. health-reform)
  • high: high (e.g. high-performance, high-technology)
  • hot: hot (e.g. hot-pressed)
  • ill: ill (e.g. ill-informed, ill-conceived)
  • imposed: imposed (e.g. state-imposed)
  • late: late (e.g. late-Victorian)
  • led: lead (e.g. state-led)
  • licensed: licensed (e.g. state-licensed)
  • life: life (e.g. life-form)
  • like: like (e.g. movie-like)
  • low: low (e.g. low-performing)
  • long: long (e.g. long-period, long-term, long-standing)
  • managed: managed (e.g. state-managed, stage-managed)
  • mandated: mandated (e.g. state-mandated)
  • much: much-praised (e.g. much-praised)
  • neo: new (e.g. neo-Victorian)
  • newly: new (e.g. newly-formed, newly-elected)
  • non: none (e.g. non-structural, non-parental, non-energy)
  • oft: often (e.g. oft-stated)
  • operated: operated (e.g. state-operated)
  • oriented: orient + ed (e.g. performance-oriented, technology-oriented)
  • packed packed (e.g. pressure-packed)
  • paper: paper (e.g. construction-paper)
  • performing: perform + ing (e.g. best-performing)
  • post: after (e.g. post-conviction)
  • poor: poor (e.g. poor-performing)
  • processing: process + ing (e.g. information-processing)
  • record: record (e.g. state-record)
  • regulated: regulate + ed (e.g. state-regulated)
  • related: relate + ed (e.g. performance-related)
  • related: relate + ed (e.g. technology-related)
  • renewable: renew + able (e.g. renewable-energy)
  • rich: rich (e.g. information-rich)
  • sanctioned: sanction + ed (e.g. state-sanctioned)
  • self: self (e.g. self-instruction)
  • semi: exactly half (e.g. semi-transparent)
  • setting: set + ing (e.g. standard-setting)
  • sharing: share + ing (e.g. information-sharing)
  • short: short (e.g. short-period)
  • single: single (e.g. single-parent)
  • social: social (e.g. social-structural)
  • solar: solar (e.g. solar-energy)
  • step: step (e.g. step-parent)
  • state: state (e.g. state-specific)
  • stage: stage (e.g. stage-managed)
  • still: still (e.g. still-life, still-living, still-warm, still-young)
  • style: style (e.g. Victorian-style)
  • subsidized: subsidized (e.g. state-subsidized)
  • then: then (e.g. then-president)
  • treated: treated (e.g. pressure-treated)
  • total: total (e.g. total-coliform)
  • top: top (e.g. top-performing)
  • technology: techn + o + logy (e.g. information-technology)
  • well: well (e.g. well-informed, well-known)
  • welfare: welfare (e.g. welfare-reform, well-conceived)
  • wielding: wield + ing (e.g. hammer-wielding)
  • vice: vice (e.g. vice-president)
  • zero: zero (e.g. zero-energy)

References