Reductions are reduced forms of English words. Reductions, such as wanna, gonna, are not real words in English. Contractions are words or phrases that have been shortened by dropping one or more letters, such as I'm, You're, etc. We need to know reductions and contractions in order to sound more natural and understand conversations between native English speakers.

Reductions

  • betcha = bet you
  • cuz = because
  • coulda = could have
  • dontcha = don’t you
  • frunna = in front of
  • gimme = give me
  • gotta = have got to, also means I understand what you said
  • gonna = go to (Americanism)
  • hafta = have to
  • imma = I am going to
  • kinda = kind of
  • lemme = let me
  • lotsa = lot of
  • outta = out to
  • sorta = sort of (Americanism)
  • shoulda = should have
  • typa = type of
  • wanna = want to
  • wassup = what’s up (sortest: sup)

Contractions

  • a’ight = alright
  • ain’t = am not / is not / are not / has not / have not / did not (colloquial)
  • amn’t = am not
  • aren’t = are not
  • can’t = cannot
  • ‘cause = because
  • could’ve = could have
  • couldn’t = could not
  • couldn’t’ve = could not have
  • daren’t = dare not / dared not
  • daresn’t = dare not
  • dasn’t = dare not
  • didn’t = did not
  • doesn’t = does not
  • don’t = do not / does not
  • dunno = don’t know / do not know
  • d’ye = do you / did you
  • e’er = ever
  • ‘em = them
  • everybody’s = everybody is
  • everyone’s = everyone is
  • g’day = good day
  • gimme = give me
  • giv’n = given
  • gonna = going to
  • gon’t = go not (colloquial)
  • gotta = got to
  • hadn’t = had not
  • had’ve = had have
  • hasn’t = has not
  • haven’t = have not
  • he’d = he had / he would
  • he’ll = he shall / he will
  • he’s = he has / he is
  • here’s = here is
  • he’ve = he have
  • how’d = how did / how would
  • howdy = how do you do / how do you fare
  • how’ll = how will
  • how’re = how are
  • how’s = how has / how is / how does
  • I’d = I had / I would
  • I’d’ve = I would have
  • I’ll = I shall / I will
  • I’m = I am
  • I’m’a = I am about to
  • I’m’o = I am going to
  • innit = is it not
  • I’ve = I have
  • isn’t = is not
  • it’d = it would
  • it’ll = it shall / it will
  • it’s = it has / it is
  • iunno = I don’t know
  • kinda = kind of
  • let’s = let us
  • ma’am = madam
  • mayn’t = may not
  • may’ve = may have
  • methinks = me thinks
  • mightn’t = might not
  • might’ve = might have
  • mustn’t = must not
  • mustn’t’ve = must not have
  • must’ve = must have
  • needn’t = need not
  • nal = and all
  • ne’er = never
  • o’clock = of the clock
  • o’er = over
  • ol’ = old
  • oughtn’t = ought not
  • ’s = is, has, does, or us
  • shalln’t = shall not (archaic)
  • shan’t = shall not
  • she’d = she had / she would
  • she’ll = she shall / she will
  • she’s = she has / she is
  • should’ve = should have
  • shouldn’t = should not
  • shouldn’t’ve = should not have
  • somebody’s = somebody has / somebody is
  • someone’s = someone has / someone is
  • something’s = something has / something is
  • so’re = so are (colloquial)
  • that’ll = that shall / that will
  • that’re = that are
  • that’s = that has / that is
  • that’d = that would / that had
  • there’d = there had / there would
  • there’ll = there shall / there will
  • there’re = there are
  • there’s = there has / there is
  • these’re = these are
  • these’ve = these have
  • they’d = they had / they would
  • they’ll = they shall / they will
  • they’re = they are / they were
  • they’ve = they have
  • this’s = this has / this is
  • those’re = those are
  • those’ve = those have
  • ‘tis = it is
  • to’ve = to have
  • ‘twas = it was
  • wanna = want to
  • wasn’t = was not
  • we’d = we had / we would/ we did
  • we’d’ve = we would have
  • we’ll = we shall / we will
  • we’re = we are
  • we’ve = we have
  • weren’t = were not
  • what’d = what did
  • what’ll = what shall / what will
  • what’re = what are/what were
  • what’s = what has / what is / what does
  • what’ve = what have
  • when’s = when has / when is
  • where’d = where did
  • where’ll = where shall / where will
  • where’re = where are
  • where’s = where has / where is / where does
  • where’ve = where have
  • which’d = which had / which would
  • which’ll = which shall / which will
  • which’re = which are
  • which’s = which has / which is
  • which’ve = which have
  • who’d = who would / who had / who did
  • who’d’ve = who would have
  • who’ll = who shall / who will
  • who’re = who are
  • who’s = who has / who is / who does
  • who’ve = who have
  • why’d = why did
  • why’re = why are
  • why’s = why has / why is / why does
  • willn’t = will not (archaic)
  • won’t = will not
  • wonnot = will not (archaic)
  • would’ve = would have
  • wouldn’t = would not
  • wouldn’t’ve = would not have
  • y’all = you all (colloquial/Southern American English)
  • y’all’d’ve = you all would have (colloquial/Southern American English)
  • y’all’d’n’ve = you all would not have (colloquial/Southern American English)
  • y’all’re = you all are (colloquial/Southern American English)
  • y’at = you at
  • you’d = you had / you would
  • you’ll = you shall / you will
  • you’re = you are
  • you’ve = you have

References