What’s Cloud Computing?

Cloud computing is the practice of using network of remote servers hosted on the Internet to store, manage, and process data, rather than a local server or a personal computer.

  • On-Premise
  • Cloud-Providers

Different cloud system architectures include:

  • Multi-cloud
  • Hybrid cloud
  • Single cloud
  • Public cloud
  • Private cloud

Cloud Computing Technologies

  • Compute
  • Network
  • Storage

Cloud Computing Services

Global Infrastructure

  • Steadily expanding global infrastructure to help customers achieve lower latency and higher throughput
  • Categories
    • Region
      • A physical location in the world with multiple Availability Zones
    • Availability Zone
      • One or more discrete data centers
    • Edge Location
      • A data center own by a trusted partner of Cloud Service Provider

Computing Layers

  • Application
  • Data
  • Runtime Environment
  • Middleware
  • OS
  • Virtualization
  • Server
  • Storage
  • Network

Service Models for Cloud Computing

  • Traditional IT (On-Premises)
  • Cloud Services
    • IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service)
      • The basic building blocks for cloud IT. Provides access to networking features, computers and data storage space.
      • Don’t worry about IT staff, data centers and hardware.
      • Examples
        • AWS
        • Google Cloud Platform
        • Microsoft Azure
        • Huawei Cloud
      • For Architects/Admins
    • PaaS (Platform as a Service)
      • Removes the need for your organization to manage the underlying infrastructure. Focus on the development and management of your applications.
      • Don’t worry about provisioning, configuring or understanding the hardware or OS.
      • Examples
        • Heroku
      • For Developers
    • SaaS (Software as a Service)
      • A completed product that is run and managed by the server provider.
      • Don’t worry about how the service is maintained, it just works and remains available.
      • Examples
        • Salesforce
        • Office 365
        • GMail
      • For End Users/Customers

Cloud Services

Cloud Service Comparisons

Deployment Models for Cloud Computing

  • On-Premise (Private Cloud)
    • Deploying resources on-premises, using virtualization and resource management tools, is sometimes called “private cloud”.
  • Cloud (Public Cloud)
    • Fully utilizing cloud computing
    • Virtual Private Cloud (VPC)
  • Hybrid
    • Using both Cloud and On-Premise

Elastic Computing (EC) Pricing Models

  • On-Demand
    • Lease commitment
  • Reserved Instances (RI)
    • Best long-term value
    • Reduced Pricing = Term × Class Offering × Payment Option
    • Terms
      • 1 Year
      • 3 Year
    • Class Offering
      • Standard
        • Cannot change RI Attributes
      • Convertible
        • Allow you to change RI Attributes if greater or equal in value
      • Scheduled
        • You reserve instances for specific time periods e.g. once a week for a few hours
  • Spot Pricing
    • Biggest Saving
    • Request spare computing capacity
    • Flexible start and end times
  • Dedicated Hosting
    • Most Expensive
    • Dedicated servers
    • Isolate hardware (enterprise requirements)
      • Single Tenant (Physical Isolation)
      • Multi-Tenant (Virtual Isolation)
    • Can be on-demand or reserved

Cloud Network Services

  • Virtual Networks
    • Bridge
    • Network Address Translation (NAT)
    • Virtual Switch
      • Open vSwitch (OVS)
      • Enhance vSwitch (EVS)
      • Distributed Virtual Switch (DVS)
  • Cloud Network Services
    • Virtual Private Cloud (VPC)
    • NAT Gateway
    • Elastic IP (EIP)

AWS Networking

Cloud Storage Services

  • Mainstream Storage Types
    • Block Storage
    • File Storage
      • CIFS
      • NFS
    • Object Storage
  • Cloud Storage Services
    • EVS: Elastic Volume Service
    • SFS: Scalable File Service
    • OBS: Object Storage Service

Organizations and Accounts

  • Organizations
  • Root Account User
    • A single sign-in identity that has complete access to all AWS services and resources in an account
    • Each account has a root account user
  • Organization Units
    • A group of AWS accounts within an organization which can also contain other organizational units, creating a hierarchy
  • Service Control Policies
    • Gives central control over the allowed permissions for all accounts in your organization, helping to ensure your account stay within your organization’s guidelines

Acronyms and Abbreviations

  • APP: Application
  • AS: Auto Scaling
  • CPU: Central Processing Unit
  • CCE: Cloud Container Engine
  • CCI: Cloud Container Instance
  • CIFS: Common Internet File System
  • ECS: Elastic Cloud Server
  • EIP: Elastic IP
  • EVS: Elastic Volume Service
  • GPU: Graphics Processing Unit
  • ICT: Information and Communications Technology
  • I/O: Input/Output
  • IaaS: Infrastructure as a Service
  • IBM: International Business Machines Corporation
  • KVM: Kernel-based Virtual Machine
  • IMS: Image Management Service
  • LXC: Linux Container
  • LVM: Logical Volume Manager
  • NAT: Network Address Translation
  • NFS: Network File System
  • NIC: Network Interface Card
  • NIST: National Institute of Standards and Technology
  • OS: Operation System
  • OBS: Object Storage Service
  • PC: Personal Computer
  • PaaS: Platform as a Service
  • RAID: Redundant Arrays of Independent Disks
  • SFS: Scalable File Service
  • SWR: Software Repository for Container
  • SOAP: Simple Object Access Protocol
  • SaaS: Software as a Service
  • TCO: Total Cost of Ownership
  • TAP: Test Access Point
  • VM: Virtual Machine
  • VLAN: Virtual Local Area Network
  • VPC: Virtual Private Cloud