SQL-92 Standard

It’s tied to the relational idea, and consists of 2 important sub ideas.

1.Relational Data Model (Schema Design)

  • “Atomic” types (Domain)
    • Table with rows and columns consist of cells
    • Each cell is one value of an atomic type (string, number, date…)
  • Schema independent of processing purposes
    • “Normalization” (Very crucial)
      • It should be normalized away from what you want to do with the data, because quite often you don’t know yet what you gonna to do with the data

Following these two rules makes you end up with a schema design where you have your data spread across many tables.

2.Relational operations

  • Transform data for each particular processing purposes
    • JOIN, UNION, Nesting…

These transformation steps help you to transform the normalized persistent data into something that is more suitable in our client application for different business.This is the important idea of what SQL is actually the key idea behind SQL.

SQL-99 Standard

It escaped the relational cage, SQL is not limited to the relational model anymore. This SQL:1999 extensions are mere “extended interpretations” of the relational data model is like saying that an intercontinental ballistic missile is merely an “extended interpretation” of a spear.

With SQL/99 you can get the best of both worlds and of course, you can get the worst of both worlds. It’s up to the the database practitioners to do the right thing.

Christopher J. Date

Writings 2000-2006 by Christopher J. Date (Date on Database)

I was as confused as anyone else. By the early 1990s, however, I’d seen the light. Domain can contain everything!

1.Relational Data Model?

  • Introduced rich types

    • Arrays
    • Nested tables (multiset)
    • Composite types (objects)

      2.Non-relational Operations

  • Introduced recursive queries that process their own output

    • Transitive closure

SQL-2016 Standard

1.Json type

  • SQL/JSON Path
    • Query language to select elements from a JSON document (a very same purpose like XPath for XML or CSS selectors for HTML)
    • Defined in the SQL standard

What’s more?

  • A lot has happened since SQL-92
  • SQL has evolved beyond the relational idea
  • If you use SQL for CRUD operations only, you are doing it wrong


Clustered and Non-clustered Index

By the storage structure, there are only two types of indices.

  1. Clustered Index
  2. Non-clustered Index (Similar to the index of a book)

There are the following differences between clustered and non-clustered indexes.

  • A table can have only one clustered index. However, you can have multiple non-clustered indexes.
  • Clustered indexes are faster than non-clustered indexes since they don’t involve any extra lookup step.
  • Clustered indexes require less memory for operations than non-clustered index.
  • In clustered indexes, indexes are the main data. In non-clustered indexes, indexes are the copy of data.
  • Clustered indexes have inherent ability of storing data on the disk, but non-clustered indexes don’t have the ability.
  • Clustered indexes store pointers to block not data. Non-clustered indexes store both value and a pointer to actual row that holds data.
  • In clustered indexes leaf nodes are actual data itself. In non-clustered indexes leaf nodes are not the actual data itself rather they only contain included columns.
  • In clustered indexes, a clustered key define order of data within table. In non-clustered indexes, a index key defines order of data within index.
  • A clustered index is a type of index in which table records are physically reordered to match the index. A non-clustered index is a special type of index in which logical order of index does not match physical stored order of the rows on disk.
  • Clustered indexes only sort tables. Therefore, they do not consume extra storage. Non-clustered indexes are stored in a separate place from the actual table claiming more storage space.

Database Replication

By scale:

  • Incremental table replication
  • Full table

By method:

  • Log-based
  • Trigger-based
  • Key-based